人体坐姿的生理特征与坐姿高度

时间:2017-10-18   作者 :管理员

   坐下来是人的自然姿势之一,从体能消耗上来看,当站立时,关节、膝部和臀部都是依靠静态的肌肉活动保持姿态的,血和体液趋于积聚在腿中;而坐下时,肌肉施力停止,能耗降低,腿的血管的静压力降低,对血液回流至心脏的阻力减少,因此,坐比站更有利于血液循环。可让人得到放松、休息。
 坐姿大体可分为三种:向前坐、笔直端坐、向后靠。向前坐的姿势主要是工作的姿势,向后靠坐是休息和放松的姿势。当人向前坐时,人体骨盆旋转成倾斜状态,骶骨也做相应移动,并趋向水平,使骶骨和腰椎变平,引起脊椎在腰部以上成为脊后凸,看起来像驼背;当笔直端坐时,骨盆呈竖直状态,骶骨的位置也较垂直,并在腰椎处形成脊椎的前凸。以上分析了人类在坐姿时的生理特征,可利用这些结论和实验结果推导出影响座具舒适程度的各类功能尺寸。
   此外,座高是指座面至地面的垂直距离,如果座面存在后倾或呈凹面弧形,座高则指座前沿中心点至地面的垂直距离。座高直接影响座具本身的性能及功能。佛山办公家具经研究后认为:一般情况下,工作用椅的座高设计得较高,休息用椅则稍低。但无论是什么用途,座高均应设计适宜,座高过高,两脚悬空碰不到地面,则体重会压迫大腿血管,妨碍血液循环,容易产生疲劳;若座高过低,小腿则需支撑大腿的重量,稍久会引起上体酸软不适,而且座高过低还会造成起身时的不便,特别是对于老人,影响尤为突出。

                               Physiological characteristics and sitting height of human sitting posture

   Sit down is one of the natural posture, from the view of physical exertion, when standing, joints, knees and hips are based on static muscle activity to maintain posture, blood and body fluid tends to accumulate in the legs; and sit down, muscle force stop, reduce energy consumption, reduce the leg static pressure vessels. The blood return to the heart of the resistance is reduced, therefore, more conducive to the blood circulation than sit stand. It allows people to relax and rest.           

   The sitting posture can be roughly divided into three types: forward sitting, sitting, leaning back end pen. Forward sitting posture is mainly working posture, sat back rest and relaxed posture. When people sit forward, human pelvis rotation into tilt state, also do the corresponding sacral movement, and tend to the level of the sacrum and the flattening of the lumbar spine, spinal kyphosis caused by spine become above the waist, looks like a hunchback; when the pen end when sitting in a vertical state, pelvis, sacrum position is vertical, and spine in the formation of lumbar lordosis. The physiological characteristics of human sitting posture are analyzed. These conclusions and experimental results can be used to derive various functional sizes that affect the comfort of seat.           

   In addition, tall refers to the seat to the ground vertical distance, if the seat back inclination or there is concave arc, a high seat front center point to the ground vertical distance. Seat height directly affects the performance and function of the seat itself. Foshan office furniture after the study that: under normal circumstances, the work of the chair seat height is higher, rest chair is slightly lower. But no matter what, tall should design appropriate, tall high, feet dangling not touch the ground, then the weight crushes the thigh blood vessels, prevent blood circulation, prone to fatigue; if the height is too low, is required to support the weight of the calf thigh, slightly for a long time will cause the upper body aching discomfort, and tall low up will cause inconvenience, especially for the elderly, particularly prominent.

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